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Der Yellowstone-Nationalpark ist ein Nationalpark in den Vereinigten Staaten. Er wurde am 1. März gegründet und ist der älteste Nationalpark der Welt. Der Vulkan Yellowstone liegt unter dem gleichnamigen und namensgebenden Nationalpark in den Vereinigten Staaten. Seine Caldera wurde bereits Im Durchschnitt fällt im Yellowstone National Park cm Schnee pro Jahr. Die durchschnittlichen Niederschläge reichen von 26 cm jährlich bei Mammoth Hot. Yellowstone ist der berühmteste der 22 Nationalparks in den Rocky Mountains. Fauchende Geysire, heiße Quellen und blubbernde Schlammtöpfe locken jedes. Der Yellowstone Nationalpark ist einer der schönsten Nationalparks der USA. Heiße Quellen, dampfende Geysire und die grandiose Tierwelt.
Yellowstone ist der berühmteste der 22 Nationalparks in den Rocky Mountains. Fauchende Geysire, heiße Quellen und blubbernde Schlammtöpfe locken jedes. Erkundet den Yellowstone Nationalpark, den ältesten Nationalpark der USA. Seine unberührte Natur und artenreiche Tierwelt locken jedes Jahr Millionen. Ein Naturwunder im US-Bundesstaat Wyoming. Der Yellowstone Nationalpark ist nicht nur der weltweit älteste, sondern zweifelsohne auch einer.
In , both Langford and Delano advocated the creation of a federal agency to protect the vast park, but Congress refused.
In , Colonel William Ludlow , who had previously explored areas of Montana under the command of George Armstrong Custer , was assigned to organize and lead an expedition to Montana and the newly established Yellowstone Park.
Observations about the lawlessness and exploitation of park resources were included in Ludlow's Report of a Reconnaissance to the Yellowstone National Park.
The report included letters and attachments by other expedition members, including naturalist and mineralogist George Bird Grinnell. Grinnell documented the poaching of buffalo, deer, elk, and antelope for hides.
As a result, Langford was forced to step down in Congress finally saw fit to implement a salary for the position, as well as to provide a minimal funding to operate the park.
Norris used these funds to expand access to the park, building numerous crude roads and facilities. In , Harry Yount was appointed as a gamekeeper to control poaching and vandalism in the park.
Yount had previously spent decades exploring the mountain country of present-day Wyoming, including the Grand Tetons , after joining F V.
Hayden 's Geological Survey in The Northern Pacific Railroad built a train station in Livingston, Montana , connecting to the northern entrance in the early s, which helped to increase visitation from in to 5, in By visitation increased enough to attract a Union Pacific Railroad connection to West Yellowstone, though rail visitation fell off considerably by World War II and ceased around the s.
Much of the railroad line was converted to nature trails, among them the Yellowstone Branch Line Trail. During the s and s, Native American tribes were effectively excluded from the national park.
Under a half-dozen tribes had made seasonal use of the Yellowstone area- the only year-round residents were small bands of Eastern Shoshone known as " Sheepeaters ".
They left the area under the assurances of a treaty negotiated in , under which the Sheepeaters ceded their lands but retained the right to hunt in Yellowstone.
The United States never ratified the treaty, and refused to recognize the claims of the Sheepeaters or any other tribe that had used Yellowstone.
The Nez Perce band associated with Chief Joseph , numbering about people, passed through Yellowstone National Park in thirteen days during late August They were being pursued by the U.
Army and entered the national park about two weeks after the Battle of the Big Hole. Some of the Nez Perce were friendly to the tourists and other people they encountered in the park; some were not.
Nine park visitors were briefly taken captive. Despite Joseph and other chiefs ordering that no one should be harmed, at least two people were killed and several wounded.
In the aftermath of the Sheepeater Indian War of , Norris built a fort to prevent Native Americans from entering the national park.
Ongoing poaching and destruction of natural resources continued unabated until the U. With the funding and manpower necessary to keep a diligent watch, the army developed their own policies and regulations that permitted public access while protecting park wildlife and natural resources.
When the National Park Service was created in , many of the management principles developed by the army were adopted by the new agency.
In , the naturalist John Muir described the park as follows: "However orderly your excursions or aimless, again and again amid the calmest, stillest scenery you will be brought to a standstill hushed and awe-stricken before phenomena wholly new to you.
Boiling springs and huge deep pools of purest green and azure water, thousands of them, are plashing and heaving in these high, cool mountains as if a fierce furnace fire were burning beneath each one of them; and a hundred geysers, white torrents of boiling water and steam, like inverted waterfalls, are ever and anon rushing up out of the hot, black underworld.
By , 1, automobiles per year were entering the park, resulting in conflicts with horses and horse-drawn transportation.
Horse travel on roads was eventually prohibited. CCC projects included reforestation, campground development of many of the park's trails and campgrounds, trail construction, fire hazard reduction, and fire-fighting work.
The CCC built the majority of the early visitor centers, campgrounds and the current system of park roads. After the enormous forest fires of damaged much of Grant Village , structures there were rebuilt in the traditional style.
The visitor center at Canyon Village, which opened in , incorporates a more traditional design as well.
The Hebgen Lake earthquake just west of Yellowstone at Hebgen Lake damaged roads and some structures in the park.
In the northwest section of the park, new geysers were found, and many existing hot springs became turbid.
In , after several years of public controversy regarding the forced reduction of the elk population in Yellowstone, United States Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall appointed an advisory board to collect scientific data to inform future wildlife management of the national parks.
In a paper known as the Leopold Report , the committee observed that culling programs at other national parks had been ineffective, and recommended management of Yellowstone's elk population.
The wildfires during the summer of were the largest in the history of the park. The fire season of was considered normal until a combination of drought and heat by mid-July contributed to an extreme fire danger.
The expansive cultural history of the park has been documented by the 1, archeological sites that have been discovered.
The park has 1, historic structures and features, and of these Obsidian Cliff and five buildings have been designated National Historic Landmarks.
The park was placed on the List of World Heritage in Danger from to due to the effects of tourism, infection of wildlife, and issues with invasive species.
Justin Ferrell explores three moral sensibilities that motivated activists in dealing with Yellowstone. First came the utilitarian vision of maximum exploitation of natural resources , characteristic of developers in the late 19th century.
Second was the spiritual vision of nature inspired by the Romanticism and the transcendentalists in the midth century. The twentieth century saw the biocentric moral vision that focuses on the health of the ecosystem as theorized by Aldo Leopold , which led to the expansion of federally protected areas and to the surrounding ecosystems.
The Heritage and Research Center is located at Gardiner, Montana , near the north entrance to the park.
The collection includes the administrative records of Yellowstone, as well as resource management records, records from major projects, and donated manuscripts and personal papers.
The archives are affiliated with the National Archives and Records Administration. Approximately 96 percent of the land area of Yellowstone National Park is located within the state of Wyoming.
Forests comprise 80 percent of the land area of the park; most of the rest is grassland. The Continental Divide of North America runs diagonally through the southwestern part of the park.
The divide is a topographic feature that separates Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean water drainages.
About one third of the park lies on the west side of the divide. The origins of the Yellowstone and Snake Rivers are near each other but on opposite sides of the divide.
The highest point in the park is atop Eagle Peak 11, feet or 3, metres and the lowest is along Reese Creek 5, feet or 1, metres.
Yellowstone National Park has one of the world's largest petrified forests , trees which were long ago buried by ash and soil and transformed from wood to mineral materials.
This ash and other volcanic debris are believed to have come from the park area itself as the central part of Yellowstone is the massive caldera of a supervolcano.
The park contains waterfalls of at least 15 feet 4. The volcanism of Yellowstone is believed to be linked to the somewhat older volcanism of Snake River plain.
Yellowstone is thus the active part of a hotspot that has moved northeast over time. It has been termed a " supervolcano " because the caldera was formed by exceptionally large explosive eruptions.
The most violent known eruption, which occurred 2. Each of the three climactic eruptions released vast amounts of ash that blanketed much of central North America, falling many hundreds of miles away.
The amount of ash and gases released into the atmosphere probably caused significant impacts to world weather patterns and led to the extinction of some species, primarily in North America.
A subsequent caldera-forming eruption occurred about , years ago. It formed the relatively small caldera that contains the West Thumb of Yellowstone Lake.
Lava strata are most easily seen at the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, where the Yellowstone River continues to carve into the ancient lava flows.
The canyon is a classic V-shaped valley , indicative of river-type erosion rather than erosion caused by glaciation.
Each eruption is part of an eruptive cycle that climaxes with the partial collapse of the roof of the volcano's partially emptied magma chamber.
This creates a collapsed depression, called a caldera, and releases vast amounts of volcanic material, usually through fissures that ring the caldera.
The most famous geyser in the park, and perhaps the world, is Old Faithful geyser, located in Upper Geyser Basin. The park contains the largest active geyser in the world— Steamboat Geyser in the Norris Geyser Basin.
A study that was completed in found that at least geysers have erupted in Yellowstone. Of these, an average of are active in a given year.
In May , the U. Geological Survey , Yellowstone National Park, and the University of Utah created the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory YVO , a partnership for long-term monitoring of the geological processes of the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field, for disseminating information concerning the potential hazards of this geologically active region.
In , changes at the Norris Geyser Basin resulted in the temporary closure of some trails in the basin. New fumaroles were observed, and several geysers showed enhanced activity and increasing water temperatures.
Several geysers became so hot that they were transformed into purely steaming features; the water had become superheated and they could no longer erupt normally.
Research indicated that these uplifts posed no immediate threat of a volcanic eruption, since they may have developed long ago, and there had been no temperature increase found near the uplifts.
This was closely followed by an upsurge of earthquake activity in April As of late , the uplift has continued at a reduced rate.
Experts responded to the conjecture by informing the public that there was no increased risk of a volcanic eruption in the near future.
Yellowstone experiences thousands of small earthquakes every year, virtually all of which are undetectable to people.
There have been six earthquakes with at least magnitude 6 or greater in historical times, including the 7.
Twenty-eight people were killed, and property damage was extensive in the immediate region. The earthquake caused some geysers in the northwestern section of the park to erupt, large cracks in the ground formed and emitted steam, and some hot springs that normally have clear water turned muddy.
For three months in , 3, minor earthquakes were detected in the northwestern section of the park, during what has been referred to as an earthquake swarm , and has been attributed to minor subsidence of the Yellowstone caldera.
These swarms of earthquakes are common, and there have been 70 such swarms between and Geological Survey.
On March 30, , a magnitude 4. This was the largest earthquake to hit the park since February 22, The ecosystem is the largest remaining continuous stretch of mostly undeveloped pristine land in the contiguous United States, considered the world's largest intact ecosystem in the northern temperate zone.
Over 1, species of trees and other vascular plants are native to the park. Another species are considered to be exotic species and are non-native.
As of , the whitebark pine is threatened by a fungus known as white pine blister rust ; however, this is mostly confined to forests well to the north and west.
In Yellowstone, about seven percent of the whitebark pine species have been impacted with the fungus, compared to nearly complete infestations in northwestern Montana.
The aspen forests have declined significantly since the early 20th century, but scientists at Oregon State University attribute recent recovery of the aspen to the reintroduction of wolves which has changed the grazing habits of local elk.
There are dozens of species of flowering plants that have been identified, most of which bloom between the months of May and September.
It is closely related to species usually found in much warmer climates, making the sand verbena an enigma. The estimated 8, examples of this rare flowering plant all make their home in the sandy soils on the shores of Yellowstone Lake, well above the waterline.
In Yellowstone's hot waters, bacteria form mats of bizarre shapes consisting of trillions of individuals. These bacteria are some of the most primitive life forms on earth.
Flies and other arthropods live on the mats, even in the middle of the bitterly cold winters. Initially, scientists thought that microbes there gained sustenance only from sulfur.
In researchers from the University of Colorado at Boulder discovered that the sustenance for at least some of the diverse hyperthermophilic species is molecular hydrogen.
Thermus aquaticus is a bacterium found in the Yellowstone hot springs that produces an important enzyme Taq polymerase that is easily replicated in the lab and is useful in replicating DNA as part of the polymerase chain reaction PCR process.
The retrieval of these bacteria can be achieved with no impact to the ecosystem. Other bacteria in the Yellowstone hot springs may also prove useful to scientists who are searching for cures for various diseases.
These organisms are capable of converting carbon monoxide and water to carbon dioxide and oxygen.
Non-native plants sometimes threaten native species by using up nutrient resources. Though exotic species are most commonly found in areas with the greatest human visitation, such as near roads and at major tourist areas, they have also spread into the backcountry.
Generally, most exotic species are controlled by pulling the plants out of the soil or by spraying, both of which are time-consuming and expensive.
Yellowstone is widely considered to be the finest megafauna wildlife habitat in the lower 48 states. There are almost 60 species of mammals in the park, including the Rocky Mountain wolf , coyote , the Canadian lynx , cougars , and black and grizzly bears.
The relatively large bison populations are a concern for ranchers, who fear that the species can transmit bovine diseases to their domesticated cousins.
In fact, about half of Yellowstone's bison have been exposed to brucellosis , a bacterial disease that came to North America with European cattle that may cause cattle to miscarry.
The disease has little effect on park bison, and no reported cases of transmission from wild bison to domestic livestock have been filed.
Elk also carry the disease, and are believed to have transmitted the infection to horses and cattle. Bison once numbered between 30 and 60 million individuals throughout North America, and Yellowstone remains one of their last strongholds.
Their populations had increased from less than 50 in the park in to 4, by The Yellowstone Park bison herd reached a peak in with 4, animals.
Despite a summer estimated population of 4, in , the number dropped to 3, in after a harsh winter and controversial brucellosis management strategies which sent hundreds to slaughter.
The Yellowstone Park bison herd is believed to be one of only four free roaming and genetically pure herds on public lands in North America.
To combat the perceived threat of brucellosis transmission to cattle, national park personnel regularly corral bison herds back into the park when they venture outside of the area's borders.
During the winter of —97, the bison herd was so large that 1, bison that had exited the park were either shot or sent to slaughter. Ecologists point out that the bison are merely traveling to seasonal grazing areas that lie within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem that have been converted to cattle grazing, some of which are within National Forests and are leased to private ranchers.
APHIS has stated that with vaccinations and other means, brucellosis can be eliminated from the bison and elk herds throughout Yellowstone.
Starting in , in an effort to protect elk populations, the U. Congress appropriated funds to be used for the purposes of "destroying wolves, prairie dogs , and other animals injurious to agriculture and animal husbandry" on public lands.
Park Service hunters carried out these orders, and by they had killed wolves. Gradually, wolves were virtually eliminated from Yellowstone.
With the passing of the Endangered Species Act in , the wolf was one of the first mammal species listed. Since the coyote is not able to bring down large animals, this lack of an apex predator resulted in a marked increase in lame and sick megafauna.
By the s, the Federal government had reversed its views on wolves. In a controversial decision by the U. Fish and Wildlife Service which oversees threatened and endangered species , northwestern wolves imported from Canada were reintroduced into the park.
Reintroduction efforts have been successful, with populations remaining relatively stable. A survey conducted in reported that there were 13 wolf packs, totaling individuals in Yellowstone and in the entire ecosystem.
These park figures were lower than those reported in , but may be attributable to wolf migration to other nearby areas as suggested by the substantial increase in the Montana population during that interval.
Fish and Wildlife Service removed the Northern Rocky Mountain wolf population from the endangered species list.
Black bears are common in the park and were a park symbol due to visitor interaction with the bears starting in Feeding and close contact with bears has not been permitted since the s to reduce their desire for human foods.
As of [update] , an estimated grizzly bears were living in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem,  with about grizzlies living wholly or partially within Yellowstone National Park.
The grizzly bear was taken off the endangered species list in Hunters who legally hunt animals outside park boundaries may transport the carcass through the park with a permit.
Population figures for elk are in excess of 30,—the largest population of any large mammal species in Yellowstone.
The southern herd migrates southward, and the majority of these elk winter on the National Elk Refuge , immediately southeast of Grand Teton National Park.
The southern herd migration is the largest mammalian migration remaining in the U. In the tracks of one female lynx and her cub were spotted and followed for over 2 miles 3.
Fecal material and other evidence obtained were tested and confirmed to be those of a lynx. No visual confirmation was made, however.
Lynx have not been seen in Yellowstone since , though DNA taken from hair samples obtained in confirmed that lynx were at least transient to the park.
The mountain lion has an estimated population of only 25 individuals parkwide. Eighteen species of fish live in Yellowstone, including the core range of the Yellowstone cutthroat trout —a fish highly sought by anglers.
Government stocking operations in , it was never officially introduced into the Yellowstone River drainage. Since , all native sport fish species caught in Yellowstone waterways are subject to a catch and release law.
Yellowstone is also home to seven species of reptiles , including the painted turtle , rubber boa , and prairie rattlesnake , bullsnake , sagebrush lizard , valley garter snake and wandering garter snake and four species of amphibians , including the boreal chorus frog , tiger salamander , western toad and columbia spotted frog.
Three hundred eleven species of birds have been reported, almost half of which nest in Yellowstone. Extremely rare sightings of whooping cranes have been recorded, however only three examples of this species are known to live in the Rocky Mountains, out of known worldwide.
As wildfire is a natural part of most ecosystems, plants that are indigenous to Yellowstone have adapted in a variety of ways. Douglas-fir have a thick bark which protects the inner section of the tree from most fires.
Lodgepole Pines —the most common tree species in the park—generally have cones that are only opened by the heat of fire.
Their seeds are held in place by a tough resin, and fire assists in melting the resin, allowing the seeds to disperse.
Fire clears out dead and downed wood, providing fewer obstacles for lodgepole pines to flourish. Subalpine Fir , Engelmann Spruce , Whitebark Pine , and other species tend to grow in colder and moister areas, where fire is less likely to occur.
Aspen trees sprout new growth from their roots, and even if a severe fire kills the tree above ground, the roots often survive unharmed because they are insulated from the heat by soil.
About thirty-five natural forest fires are ignited each year by lightning , while another six to ten are started by people—in most cases by accident.
Yellowstone National Park has three fire lookout towers , each staffed by trained fire fighters. The easiest one to reach is atop Mount Washburn, which has interpretive exhibits and an observation deck open to the public.
Fires burn with the greatest intensity in the late afternoon and evening. Current policy is to suppress all human caused fires and to evaluate natural fires, examining the benefit or detriment they may pose on the ecosystem.
If a fire is considered to be an immediate threat to people and structures, or will burn out of control, then fire suppression is performed.
In an effort to minimize the chances of out of control fires and threats to people and structures, park employees do more than just monitor the potential for fire.
Controlled burns are prescribed fires which are deliberately started to remove dead timber under conditions which allow fire fighters an opportunity to carefully control where and how much wood is consumed.
Natural fires are sometimes considered prescribed fires if they are left to burn. In Yellowstone, unlike some other parks, there have been very few fires deliberately started by employees as prescribed burns.
However, over the last 30 years, over natural fires have been allowed to burn naturally. In addition, fire fighters remove dead and down wood and other hazards from areas where they will be a potential fire threat to lives and property, reducing the chances of fire danger in these areas.
The common notion in early United States land management policies was that all forest fires were bad. Fire was seen as a purely destructive force and there was little understanding that it was an integral part of the ecosystem.
Consequently, until the s, when a better understanding of wildfire was developed, all fires were suppressed.
This led to an increase in dead and dying forests, which would later provide the fuel load for fires that would be much harder, and in some cases, impossible to control.
Fire Management Plans were implemented, detailing that natural fires should be allowed to burn if they posed no immediate threat to lives and property.
Grasses and plants which grew well in the early summer from the abundant spring moisture produced plenty of grass, which soon turned to dry tinder.
The National Park Service began firefighting efforts to keep the fires under control, but the extreme drought made suppression difficult.
By the end of the month, the fires were out of control. A total of 25, firefighters and U. By the time winter brought snow that helped extinguish the last flames, the fires had destroyed 67 structures and caused several million dollars in damage.
Contrary to media reports and speculation at the time, the fires killed very few park animals—surveys indicated that only about elk of an estimated 40,—50, , 36 deer, 12 moose, 6 black bears, and 9 bison had perished.
Changes in fire management policies were implemented by land management agencies throughout the United States, based on knowledge gained from the fires and the evaluation of scientists and experts from various fields.
By , Yellowstone had adopted a new fire management plan which observed stricter guidelines for the management of natural fires.
Yellowstone climate is greatly influenced by altitude, with lower elevations generally found to be warmer year-round. Summer afternoons are frequently accompanied by thunderstorms.
The precipitation of Yellowstone is greatly influenced by the moisture channel formed by the Snake River Plain to the west that was, in turn, formed by Yellowstone itself.
The tornado left a path of destruction 1 to 2 miles 1. The climate at Yellowstone Lake is classified as subarctic Dfc , according to Köppen-Geiger climate classification , while at the park headquarters the classification is humid continental Dfb.
Yellowstone ranks among the most popular national parks in the United States. Since the mids, at least 2 million tourists have visited the park almost every year.
Concessionaires manage nine hotels and lodges, with a total of 2, hotel rooms and cabins available. They also oversee gas stations, stores and most of the campgrounds.
Another employees work either permanently or seasonally for the National Park Service. Park service roads lead to major features; however, road reconstruction has produced temporary road closures.
Yellowstone is in the midst of a long term road reconstruction effort, which is hampered by a short repair season.
In the winter, all roads aside from the one which enters from Gardiner, Montana , and extends to Cooke City, Montana , are closed to wheeled vehicles.
In the winter, concessionaires operate guided snowmobile and snow coach tours, though their numbers and access are based on quotas established by the National Park Service.
Traffic jams created by road construction or by people observing wildlife can result in long delays. Art and photography are integral parts of the Yellowstone experience.
Fun for all ages and the whole family! Apr Ways to Visit Yellowstone Virtually. April 1, Inside Yellowstone , Institute , Wildlife.
Yellowstone National Park Webcams. Yellowstone National Park on Social Media. A financial advisor drags his family from Chicago to the Missouri Ozarks, where he must launder money to appease a drug boss.
Yellowstone follows the Dutton family, led by John Dutton, who controls the largest contiguous ranch in the United States, under constant attack by those it borders - land developers, an Indian reservation, and America's first National Park.
It is an intense study of a violent world far from media scrutiny - where land grabs make developers billions, and politicians are bought and sold by the world's largest oil and lumber corporations.
Where drinking water poisoned by fracking wells and unsolved murders are not news: they are a consequence of living in the new frontier.
It is the best and worst of America seen through the eyes of a family that represents both. Written by ahmetkozan.
Great role for Kevin Costner. Good story line and acting can't wait to see what happens next. Sign In. Keep track of everything you watch; tell your friends.
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What's New on Prime Video in June. June TV Calendar. Top 20 Highest-Rated Shows of Top TV Shows ofErkundet den Yellowstone Nationalpark, den ältesten Nationalpark der USA. Seine unberührte Natur und artenreiche Tierwelt locken jedes Jahr Millionen. Der Yellowstone-Nationalpark ist ein Nationalpark in Wyoming mit kleinen Teilen in Montana und Idaho. Übersichtskarte über den Yellowstone National Park. Ein Naturwunder im US-Bundesstaat Wyoming. Der Yellowstone Nationalpark ist nicht nur der weltweit älteste, sondern zweifelsohne auch einer. Mit dabei war Truman Evertsder unter abenteuerlichsten See more beinahe sein Leben verlor. Danke für eine kurze Info Matthias Bräutigam. Und auch für Touristen hat der Yellowstone-Nationalpark viele Attraktionen zu bieten. Wenige hundert Meter führt der Weg über einen Boardwalk bis zu diesem Aussichtspunkt. SWR Stand: Diese werden allerdings mittlerweile nicht mehr sofort bekämpft, sondern nur beobachtet, article source ein unkontrolliertes Ausbreiten des Feuers zu think, jenna leigh green have.