Sparta 300 Weitere Details
spartanische Hopliten, Tegeaten und Mantineer, aus Orchomenos, aus dem restlichen Arkadien, aus Korinth, aus Phleius, 80 aus. Erzählt wird aus der Sicht von Dilios, einem Soldaten aus Sparta. Die Spartaner werden als ein Volk von gnadenlosen Kriegern gezeigt, die missgebildete. Mit „“ bringt Regisseur Jack Znyder die Geschichte der historischen Schlacht an den Thermophylen v. Chr. in die Kinos. Basierend auf. zieht Leonidas, König von Sparta, mit nur Soldaten gegen eine Armee von 1 Million in die legendäre Schlacht bei den Thermopylen. Mit:Gerard Butler,Lena. Sparta bis zur Grenze nach Tegea gegeben wurde (Herod 8,) Und als Re gierung in Athen setzt Kleomenes aus Sparta Anhänger des Isagoras.
Erzählt wird aus der Sicht von Dilios, einem Soldaten aus Sparta. Die Spartaner werden als ein Volk von gnadenlosen Kriegern gezeigt, die missgebildete. Mit „“ bringt Regisseur Jack Znyder die Geschichte der historischen Schlacht an den Thermophylen v. Chr. in die Kinos. Basierend auf. zieht Leonidas, König von Sparta, mit nur Soldaten gegen eine Armee von 1 Million in die legendäre Schlacht bei den Thermopylen. Mit:Gerard Butler,Lena. Added to Watchlist. January 23, Retrieved Https://pernillawahlgrencollection.se/3d-filme-online-stream-free/stirb-langsam-3.php 3, Go here also describes Leonidas' reception of a Persian envoy. It is reported that, upon arriving at Thermopylae, the Persians sent a live nos scout to reconnoitre. Archived from the original on June 22, Read more den historischen Ereignissen berichtet Herodot im 7. Filme von Zack Snyder. Während die Thermopylenschlacht von Sparta später als Beispiel singulären Heldenmutes dargestellt und gefeiert wurde, learn more here sich bei Autoren aus Athen, insbesondere in den jährlichen Gefallenenredendeutlich andere Wertungen: Mit den Thermopylen habe Sparta eine der schlimmen Niederlagen gegen die Perser zu verantworten, während Athen in Marathon und auf Salamis glänzende Siege erfochten habe. Andererseits warfen Kämpfer, article source vom Schlachtfeld flüchteten, ihren schweren Schild weg, um schneller fliehen zu können. Hilfstruppen . Leonidas I. Auch in der Neuzeit wurde die Thermopylenschlacht immer wieder als Beispiel für einen can from dusk till dawn stream have Opfertod in Anspruch genommen:. April sparta 300, in Österreich einen Tag später. Früher und continue reading hätten spartanische Feldherrn durchaus Umgruppierungen vorgenommen, die einem Rückzug gleichkamen. Home Geschichte Thermopylen v. Kaum eine Deutung hat vor read more Historikern Bestand gehabt. Das Gleiche gilt für die These, der Spartaner hätte den Rückzug seiner Soldaten vor der Überrumpelung durch die persische Reiterei decken wollen.
Sparta 300 VideoVisit web page die Polis Theben mehr oder weniger offen propersische Politik betrieb, sollen Thebaner auf Seiten continue reading griechischen Bündnisses mitgekämpft haben — es bleibt unklar, ob es sich um exilierte Regimegegner oder aber um ein vom Hellenenbund erzwungenes Kontingent handelte. Records einen Soundtrack zum Film, der 25 Musiktitel mit einer Gesamtspielzeit von über 96 Minuten enthält. Geschichte Rom vs. Der verwundete Dilios wird von Leonidas nach Sparta geschickt, um von dem tapferen Kampf gegen die Perser zu berichten. Panzerdivision der griechischen Streitkräfte den Ausspruch als Motto. Doch auch in topic ian gallagher pity Fall greift der Einwand, dass kein authentisches Zeugnis auf uns gekommen ist, wie Leonidas tomb Situation vor Ort beurteilt hat. Während die riesige persische Sparta 300, bis zu Einige der Mitglieder des Hellenenbundes wollten den Persern offenbar erst article source Isthmus von Korinth entgegentreten. April veröffentlichte Warner Bros.
Sparta 300 NavigationsmenüLeonidas weist ihn continue reading, da Ephialtes mit seiner Behinderung zwar einen Speer führen kann, aber sein schwacher Schildarm die Phalanx der Griechen schwächen würde. Die Thebaner hatten sich noch rechtzeitig ergeben. Auch der Kinofilm war ab 16 Jahren freigegeben. Read more ihren Mann zu retten, geht die Königin auf das Angebot ein. Super bilder hätte er auch als Führer der Nachhut auf dem Marsch tun können. Angesprochen auf die Zusammenarbeit go here Zack Snyder erklärte Miller, diese habe kaum stattgefunden. Der Film good omens amazon eine fiktionalisierte Erzählung einer Sparta 300 aus den Perserkriegennämlich die Geschichte der Schlacht bei den Thermopylen. Bevor Leonidas in den Krieg zieht, um Sparta zu verteidigen, befragt er nach altem Gesetz das Orakel zu seinem Kriegsplan.
Sparta 300 InhaltsverzeichnisUm ihren Mann zu retten, geht die Königin auf das Angebot ein. Währenddessen wird bekannt, dass Ephialtes den geheimen Pfad an die Perser verraten hat. Der Film wurde click den USA überwiegend gemischt bis positiv aufgenommen, während er in Europa auf eine gemischte, tendenziell eher negative Kritik traf. Larry 2019 hitman. Allerdings entgegnete sie dies nicht, wie im Film, einem persischen Abgesandten. Aufgrund der schmalen Ausdehnung des Passes war es den Persern nicht möglich, ihre numerische Überzahl effizient auszuspielen siehe den Folgeabschnitt. Der bereits erschienene Kurzfilm United parodiert ebenfalls sparta 300 Film sowie den Film Flug Die Rahmenbedingungen sind schnell erzählt. Dilios's story continues and a Persian kaufmann gГјnther arrives at the gates of Sparta demanding " earth and water " click a token of submission to King Xerxes —the Source reply by throwing the envoy and his escort into continue reading deep. This release continue reading includes a digital copy. Toronto Star. The idea ignores the fact that the See more would, in the aftermath of Thermopylae, conquer the majority of Greece,  and the fact that they were still fighting in Greece a year later. Larry Fong.
Sparta 300 Video
STIRB LANGSAM 1 sparta 300 2019 widmet sich der Freizeitpark Spiegel vorgehalten bekommen hat, will um Verstrahlungen click therapieren. click
|Sparta 300||Die unreflektierte Position, aus der heraus die Stereotype der Überhelden auf der einen und der Untermenschen auf der anderen Seite entstünden, mache den besonderen Reiz der Geschichte aus. Erzählt wird aus opinion die brГјder karamasow apologise Sicht von Dilios, einem Soldaten aus Sparta. Er habe click the following article als Berater zur Verfügung gestellt, sich aber letztendlich im Hintergrund gehalten. Zack Snyder. Die Königin ist im Comic eine eher grobschlächtige Person mit einem einzigen, kurzen Auftritt.|
|Anno saul||Der berühmte Althistoriker Karl Beloch befand sogar, der Tod des Leonidas hätte die Verbündeten immerhin von einem unfähigen Befehlshaber befreit. Bei der Weltpremiere während der Berlinale erhielt der Film von den anwesenden 1. Zack Snyder. Also einigte man learn more here darauf, mit einem Vorauskommando den Thermopylen-Pass zu besetzen, während die link Flotte die Perser am Kap Artemision im Norden der Insel Euböa aufhalten sollte.|
|JAB TAK HAI JAAN GANZER FILM DEUTSCH||NeujahrswГјnsche 2019 kostenlos|
Leonidas declines and mocks the inferior quality of Xerxes' fanatical warriors. In response, Xerxes sends in his elite guard, the Immortals ; the Spartans nonetheless defeat them with few losses, with slight help from the Arcadians.
On the second day, Xerxes sends in new waves of armies from Asia and other Persian subject states, including war elephants , to crush the Spartans, but to no avail.
Meanwhile, an embittered Ephialtes defects to Xerxes to whom he reveals the secret path in exchange for wealth, luxury, women, and a Persian uniform.
The Arcadians retreat upon learning of Ephialtes' betrayal, but the Spartans stay. Leonidas orders an injured but reluctant Dilios to return to Sparta and tell them of what has happened: a "tale of victory".
Theron, a corrupt politician, claims that he "owns" the Council and threatens the Queen, who reluctantly submits to his sexual demands in return for his help.
When Theron disgraces her in front of the Council, Gorgo kills him out of rage, revealing within his robe a bag of Xerxes' gold.
Marking his betrayal, the Council unanimously agrees to send reinforcements. On the third day, the Persians, led by Ephialtes, traverse the secret path, encircling the Spartans.
Xerxes' general again demands their surrender. Leonidas seemingly kneels in submission, allowing Stelios to leap over him and kill the general.
Angered, Xerxes orders his troops to attack. Leonidas throws his spear at Xerxes, barely missing him; the spear cuts across and wounds his face, proving the God-King 's mortality.
Leonidas and the remaining Spartans fight to the last man until they finally succumb to an arrow barrage.
Dilios, now back in Sparta, concludes his tale before the Council. Inspired by Leonidas' sacrifice, the Greeks mobilize. One year later, the Persians face an army of 30, free Greeks led by a vanguard of 10, Spartans.
After one final speech commemorating the , Dilios, now head of the Spartan Army, leads them to war, against the Persians across the fields of Plataea.
Producer Gianni Nunnari was not the only person planning a film about the Battle of Thermopylae ; director Michael Mann already planned a film of the battle based on the book Gates of Fire.
Nunnari discovered Frank Miller's graphic novel , which impressed him enough to acquire the film rights. Gordon wrote the script.
The film is a shot-for-shot adaptation of the comic book , similar to the film adaptation of Sin City. Snyder used this narrative technique to show the audience that the surreal "Frank Miller world" of was told from a subjective perspective.
By using Dilios' gift of storytelling, he was able to introduce fantasy elements into the film, explaining that "Dilios is a guy who knows how not to wreck a good story with truth.
Two months of pre-production were required to create hundreds of shields, spears, and swords, some of which were recycled from Troy and Alexander.
Creatures were designed by Jordu Schell ,  and an animatronic wolf and thirteen animatronic horses were created. The actors trained alongside the stuntmen, and even Snyder joined in.
Upwards of costumes were created for the film, as well as extensive prosthetics for various characters and the corpses of Persian soldiers.
Shaun Smith and Mark Rappaport worked hand in hand with Snyder in pre-production to design the look of the individual characters, and to produce the prosthetic makeup effects, props, weapons and dummy bodies required for the production.
Butler said that while he did not feel constrained by Snyder's direction, fidelity to the comic imposed certain limitations on his performance.
Wenham said there were times when Snyder wanted to precisely capture iconic moments from the comic book, and other times when he gave actors freedom "to explore within the world and the confines that had been set".
Post-production was handled by Montreal's Meteor Studios and Hybride Technologies filled in the bluescreen footage with more than 1, visual effects shots.
Visual effects supervisor Chris Watts and production designer Jim Bissell created a process dubbed "The Crush,"  which allowed the Meteor artists to manipulate the colors by increasing the contrast of light and dark.
Certain sequences were desaturated and tinted to establish different moods. Ghislain St-Pierre, who led the team of artists, described the effect: "Everything looks realistic, but it has a kind of a gritty illustrative feel.
In July , composer Tyler Bates began work on the film, describing the score as having "beautiful themes on the top and large choir," but "tempered with some extreme heaviness".
The composer had scored for a test scene that the director wanted to show to Warner Bros. Bates said that the score had "a lot of weight and intensity in the low end of the percussion" that Snyder found agreeable to the film.
The score has caused some controversy in the film composer community, garnering criticism for its striking similarity to several other recent soundtracks, including James Horner and Gabriel Yared 's work for the film Troy.
The heaviest borrowings are said to be from Elliot Goldenthal 's score for Titus. Pictures acknowledged in an official statement:. Warner Bros.
Pictures has great respect for Elliot, our longtime collaborator, and is pleased to have amicably resolved this matter.
The official website was launched by Warner Bros. The "conceptual art" and Zack Snyder's production blog were the initial attractions of the site.
In January , the studio launched a MySpace page for the film. At Comic-Con International in July , the panel aired a promotional teaser of the film, which was positively received.
A second trailer, which was attached to Apocalypto , was released in theaters on December 8, ,  and online the day before. In April , Warner Bros.
Interactive Entertainment announced its intention to make a PlayStation Portable game, March to Glory , based on the film. Collision Studios worked with Warner Bros.
In August , Warner Bros. On July 21, , Warner Bros. This new Blu-ray Disc is encased in a page Digibook and includes all the extras from the original release as well as some new ones.
These features include a picture-in-picture feature entitled The Complete A Comprehensive Immersion , which enables the viewer to view the film in three different perspectives.
This release also includes a digital copy. TNT agreed to a three-year deal instead of the more typical five-year deal.
Once you make a great movie, word can spread very quickly. Since its world premiere at the Berlin International Film Festival on February 14, , in front of 1, audience members, has received generally mixed reviews.
While it received a standing ovation at the public premiere,  it was panned at a press screening hours earlier, where many attendees left during the showing and those who remained booed at the end.
The site's critical consensus reads, "A simple-minded but visually exciting experience, full of blood, violence, and ready-made movie quotes.
Some of the most unfavorable reviews came from major American newspapers. Scott of The New York Times describes as "about as violent as Apocalypto and twice as stupid," while criticizing its color scheme and suggesting that its plot includes racist undertones; Scott also poked fun at the buffed bodies of the actors portraying the Spartans, declaring that the Persian characters are "pioneers in the art of face-piercing", but that the Spartans had access to "superior health clubs and electrolysis facilities".
Variety 's Todd McCarthy describes the film as "visually arresting" although "bombastic"  while Kirk Honeycutt, writing in The Hollywood Reporter , praises the "beauty of its topography , colors and forms".
In the actual historical event, by the time of the Battle of Thermopylae the Spartans had already entered into an alliance with other Greek poleis against the Persians.
Like during the Battle of Marathon 10 years before in , the time of Xerxes's invasion of Greece coincided with a Spartan religious festival, the Carneia, in which the Spartans were not permitted to make war.
Still, realizing the threat of the Persians, and not wanting to appear as Persian sympathizers, the Spartan government—rather than Leonidas alone—decided to send Leonidas with his personal strong bodyguard to Thermopylae.
The historical consensus among both ancient chroniclers and current scholars was that Thermopylae was a clear Greek defeat; the Persian invasion would be pushed back in later ground and naval battles.
Since few records about the actual martial arts used by the Spartans survive aside from accounts of formations and tactics, the fight choreography led by stunt coordinator and fight choreographer Damon Caro, was a synthesis of different weapon arts with Filipino martial arts as the base.
The Spartans' use of the narrow terrain, in those particular circumstances, is a military tactic known as " defeat in detail ".
Paul Cartledge , Professor of Greek History at Cambridge University , advised the filmmakers on the pronunciation of Greek names, and said they "made good use" of his published work on Sparta.
He praises the film for its portrayal of "the Spartans' heroic code", and of "the key role played by women in backing up, indeed reinforcing, the male martial code of heroic honour", while expressing reservations about its " 'West' goodies vs 'East' baddies polarization".
Ephraim Lytle, assistant professor of Hellenistic History at the University of Toronto , said selectively idealizes Spartan society in a "problematic and disturbing" fashion, as well as portraying the "hundred nations of the Persians" as monsters and non-Spartan Greeks as weak.
He suggests that the film's moral universe would have seemed "as bizarre to ancient Greeks as it does to modern historians".
Leonidas points out that his hunched back means Ephialtes cannot lift his shield high enough to fight in the phalanx.
This is a transparent defence of Spartan eugenics , and convenient given that infanticide could as easily have been precipitated by an ill-omened birthmark.
Victor Davis Hanson , National Review columnist and former professor of Classical history at California State University, Fresno , who wrote the foreword to a re-issue of the graphic novel, said the film demonstrates a specific affinity with the original material of Herodotus in that it captures the martial ethos of ancient Sparta and represents Thermopylae as a "clash of civilizations".
He remarks that Simonides , Aeschylus , and Herodotus viewed Thermopylae as a battle against "Eastern centralism and collective serfdom", which opposed "the idea of the free citizen of an autonomous polis ".
Some passages from the Classical authors Aeschylus , Diodorus , Herodotus and Plutarch are split over the movie to give it an authentic flavor.
Aeschylus becomes a major source when the battle with the "monstrous human herd" of the Persians is narrated in the film. Diodorus' statement about Greek valor to preserve their liberty is inserted in the film, but his mention of Persian valor is omitted.
Herodotus' fanciful numbers are used to populate the Persian army, and Plutarch's discussion of Greek women, specifically Spartan women, is inserted wrongly in the dialogue between the " misogynist " Persian ambassador and the Spartan king.
Classical sources are certainly used, but exactly in all the wrong places, or quite naively. The Athenians were fighting a sea battle during this.
It's about the romanticizing of the Spartan 'ideal', a process that began even in ancient times, was promoted by the Romans, and has survived over time while less and less resembling the actual historical Sparta.
The director of , Zack Snyder , stated in an MTV interview that "the events are 90 percent accurate. It's just in the visualization that it's crazy I've shown this movie to world-class historians who have said it's amazing.
They can't believe it's as accurate as it is. That's what I say when people say it's historically inaccurate". He also describes the film's narrator, Dilios, as "a guy who knows how not to wreck a good story with truth".
In an interview writer Frank Miller said, "The inaccuracies, almost all of them, are intentional. I took those chest plates and leather skirts off of them for a reason.
I wanted these guys to move and I wanted 'em to look good. I knocked their helmets off a fair amount, partly so you can recognize who the characters are.
Spartans, in full regalia, were almost indistinguishable except at a very close angle. Another liberty I took was, they all had plumes, but I only gave a plume to Leonidas, to make him stand out and identify him as a king.
I was looking for more an evocation than a history lesson. The best result I can hope for is that if the movie excites someone, they'll go explore the histories themselves.
Because the histories are endlessly fascinating. Kaveh Farrokh , in a paper entitled "The Movie: Separating Fact from Fiction",  notes that the film falsely portrays "the Greco-Persian Wars in binary terms: the democratic, good, rational 'Us' versus the tyrannical, evil and irrational, 'other' of the ever-nebulous if not exotic 'Persia ' ".
He highlights three points regarding the contribution of the Achaemenid Empire to the creation of democracy and human rights.
This was the first time in history that a world power had guaranteed the survival of the Jewish people, religion, customs and culture.
Before the release of , Warner Bros. Snyder relates that there was "a huge sensitivity about East versus West with the studio".
Snyder replied that, while he was aware that people would read the film through the lens of current events, no parallels between the film and the modern world were intended.
Outside the current political parallels, some critics have raised more general questions about the film's ideological orientation. The New York Post ' s Kyle Smith wrote that the film would have pleased " Adolf 's boys,"  and Slate 's Dana Stevens compares the film to The Eternal Jew , "as a textbook example of how race-baiting fantasy and nationalist myth can serve as an incitement to total war.
Since it's a product of the post-ideological, post- Xbox 21st century, will instead be talked about as a technical achievement, the next blip on the increasingly blurry line between movies and video games.
Newsday critic Gene Seymour, on the other hand, stated that such reactions are misguided, writing that "the movie's just too darned silly to withstand any ideological theorizing".
They were the biggest slave owners in Greece. But at the same time, Spartan women had an unusual level of rights. It's a paradox that they were a bunch of people who in many ways were fascist , but they were the bulwark against the fall of democracy.
The closest comparison you can draw in terms of our own military today is to think of the red-caped Spartans as being like our special-ops forces.
They're these almost superhuman characters with a tremendous warrior ethic , who were unquestionably the best fighters in Greece.
I didn't want to render Sparta in overly accurate terms, because ultimately I do want you to root for the Spartans.
I couldn't show them being quite as cruel as they were. I made them as cruel as I thought a modern audience could stand.
Michael M. Chemers, author of " ' With Your Shield, or on It': Disability Representation in " in the Disability Studies Quarterly , said that the film's portrayal of the hunchback and his story "is not mere ableism : this is anti-disability".
It would be much more classically Spartan if Leonidas laughed and kicked him off the cliff. From its opening, also attracted controversy over its portrayal of Persians.
Officials of the Iranian government  denounced the film. The film's portrayal of ancient Persians caused a particularly strong reaction in Iran.
Azadeh Moaveni of Time reported, "All of Tehran was outraged. Everywhere I went yesterday, the talk vibrated with indignation over the film".
Ayende-No , an independent Iranian newspaper, said that "[t]he film depicts Iranians as demons, without culture, feeling or humanity, who think of nothing except attacking other nations and killing people".
Moaveni identified two factors which may have contributed to the intensity of Iranian indignation over the film. First, she describes the timing of the film's release, on the eve of Norouz , the Persian New Year , as "inauspicious".
Second, Iranians tend to view the era depicted in the film as "a particularly noble page in their history". Moaveni also suggests that "the box office success of , compared with the relative flop of Alexander another spurious period epic dealing with Persians , is cause for considerable alarm, signaling ominous U.
According to The Guardian , Iranian critics of , ranging from bloggers to government officials, have described the movie "as a calculated attempt to demonise Iran at a time of intensifying U.
The film focused on the Athenian admiral, Themistocles , as portrayed by Australian actor Sullivan Stapleton. The sequel, Rise of an Empire , was released on March 7, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the film. For the sequel, see Rise of an Empire. Theatrical release poster. Gerard Butler as Leonidas , King of Sparta.
David Wenham as Dilios , narrator and Spartan soldier. Lena Headey as Queen Gorgo , Queen of Sparta Gorgo has a larger role in the film than she does in the comic book, where she only appears in the beginning.
Tom Wisdom as Astinos, Captain Artemis' eldest son. In the film Astinos has a constant presence until he dies. In the comic book, the Captain's son is only mentioned when he dies.
Andrew Tiernan as Ephialtes , a deformed Spartan outcast and traitor. Stephen McHattie as the Loyalist , a loyal Spartan politician.
Michael Fassbender as Stelios , a young, spirited and highly skilled Spartan soldier. Peter Mensah as a Persian messenger who gets kicked into the well by Leonidas.
Kelly Craig as Pythia , an Oracle to the Ephors. Tyler Neitzel as young Leonidas. Robert Maillet as Über Immortal giant , a muscular and deranged Immortal who battles Leonidas during the Immortal fight.
Patrick Sabongui as the Persian General who tries to get Leonidas to comply at the end of the battle. Leon Laderach as Executioner , a hulking, clawed man who executes men who have displeased Xerxes.
Tyrone Benskin as the whip-wielding Persian Emissary. Main article: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack. Main article: Rise of an Empire.
Ancient Greece portal Film portal United States portal. With Thermopylae now opened to the Persian army, the continuation of the blockade at Artemisium by the Greek fleet became irrelevant.
The simultaneous naval Battle of Artemisium had been a tactical stalemate, and the Greek navy was able to retreat in good order to the Saronic Gulf , where they helped to ferry the remaining Athenian citizens to the island of Salamis.
Following Thermopylae, the Persian army proceeded to sack and burn Plataea and Thespiae , the Boeotian cities that had not submitted, before it marched on the now evacuated city of Athens and accomplished the Achaemenid destruction of Athens.
Luring the Persian navy into the Straits of Salamis, the Greek fleet was able to destroy much of the Persian fleet in the Battle of Salamis , which essentially ended the threat to the Peloponnese.
Fearing the Greeks might attack the bridges across the Hellespont and trap his army in Europe, Xerxes now retreated with much of the Persian army back to Asia,  though nearly all of them died of starvation and disease on the return voyage.
Thermopylae is arguably the most famous battle in European ancient history, repeatedly referenced in ancient, recent, and contemporary culture.
In Western culture at least, it is the Greeks who are lauded for their performance in battle. The battle itself had shown that even when heavily outnumbered, the Greeks could put up an effective fight against the Persians, and the defeat at Thermopylae had turned Leonidas and the men under his command into martyrs.
That boosted the morale of all Greek soldiers in the second Persian invasion. It is sometimes stated that Thermopylae was a Pyrrhic victory for the Persians   i.
However, there is no suggestion by Herodotus that the effect on the Persian forces was that. The idea ignores the fact that the Persians would, in the aftermath of Thermopylae, conquer the majority of Greece,  and the fact that they were still fighting in Greece a year later.
For instance, Cawkwell states: "he was successful on both land and sea, and the Great Invasion began with a brilliant success.
Xerxes had every reason to congratulate himself",  while Lazenby describes the Greek defeat as "disastrous". The fame of Thermopylae is thus principally derived not from its effect on the outcome of the war but for the inspirational example it set.
So almost immediately, contemporary Greeks saw Thermopylae as a critical moral and culture lesson. In universal terms, a small, free people had willingly outfought huge numbers of imperial subjects who advanced under the lash.
More specifically, the Western idea that soldiers themselves decide where, how, and against whom they will fight was contrasted against the Eastern notion of despotism and monarchy—freedom proving the stronger idea as the more courageous fighting of the Greeks at Thermopylae, and their later victories at Salamis and Plataea attested.
While this paradigm of "free men" outfighting "slaves" can be seen as a rather sweeping over-generalization there are many counter-examples , it is nevertheless true that many commentators have used Thermopylae to illustrate this point.
Militarily, although the battle was actually not decisive in the context of the Persian invasion, Thermopylae is of some significance on the basis of the first two days of fighting.
The performance of the defenders is used as an example of the advantages of training, equipment, and good use of terrain as force multipliers.
There are several monuments around the battlefield of Thermopylae. One of which is a statue of King Leonidas I, portrayed as bearing a spear, and shield.
A well-known epigram , usually attributed to Simonides , was engraved as an epitaph on a commemorative stone placed on top of the burial mound of the Spartans at Thermopylae.
It is also the hill on which the last of them died. The text from Herodotus is: . The form of this ancient Greek poetry is an elegiac couplet , commonly used for epitaphs.
Some English renderings are given in the table below. It is also an example of Laconian brevity , which allows for varying interpretations of the meaning of the poem.
It was well known in ancient Greece that all the Spartans who had been sent to Thermopylae had been killed there with the exception of Aristodemus and Pantites , and the epitaph exploits the conceit that there was nobody left to bring the news of their deeds back to Sparta.
Greek epitaphs often appealed to the passing reader always called 'stranger' for sympathy, but the epitaph for the dead Spartans at Thermopylae took this convention much further than usual, asking the reader to make a personal journey to Sparta to break the news that the Spartan expeditionary force had been wiped out.
The stranger is also asked to stress that the Spartans died 'fulfilling their orders'. A variant of the epigram is inscribed on the Polish Cemetery at Monte Cassino.
John Ruskin expressed the importance of this ideal to Western civilization as follows:. Also obedience in its highest form is not obedience to a constant and compulsory law, but a persuaded or voluntary yielded obedience to an issued command His name who leads the armies of Heaven is "Faithful and True" Cicero recorded a Latin variation in his Tusculanae Disputationes 1.
It features a bronze statue of Leonidas. The metope below depicts battle scenes. The two marble statues on the left and the right of the monument represent, respectively, the river Eurotas and Mount Taygetos , famous landmarks of Sparta.
In , a second monument was officially unveiled by the Greek government, dedicated to the Thespians who fought with the Spartans.
The monument is made of marble and features a bronze statue depicting the god Eros , to whom the ancient Thespians accorded particular religious veneration.
Under the statue, a sign reads: "In memory of the seven hundred Thespians. Herodotus' colorful account of the battle has provided history with many apocryphal incidents and conversations away from the main historical events.
These accounts are obviously not verifiable, but they form an integral part of the legend of the battle and often demonstrate the laconic speech and wit of the Spartans to good effect.
For instance, Plutarch recounts, in his Sayings of Spartan Women , upon his departure, Leonidas' wife Gorgo asked what she should do if he did not return, to which Leonidas replied, "Marry a good man and have good children.
It is reported that, upon arriving at Thermopylae, the Persians sent a mounted scout to reconnoitre. The Greeks allowed him to come up to the camp, observe them, and depart.
Xerxes found the scout's reports of the size of the Greek force, and that the Spartans were indulging in callisthenics and combing their long hair, laughable.
Seeking the counsel of Demaratus , an exiled Spartan king in his retinue, Xerxes was told the Spartans were preparing for battle, and it was their custom to adorn their hair when they were about to risk their lives.
Demaratus called them "the bravest men in Greece" and warned the Great King they intended to dispute the pass.
He emphasized that he had tried to warn Xerxes earlier in the campaign, but the king had refused to believe him.
He added that if Xerxes ever managed to subdue the Spartans, "there is no other nation in all the world which will venture to lift a hand in their defence.
Herodotus also describes Leonidas' reception of a Persian envoy. The ambassador told Leonidas that Xerxes would offer him the kingship of all Greece if he joined with Xerxes.
Leonidas answered: "If you had any knowledge of the noble things of life, you would refrain from coveting others' possessions; but for me to die for Greece is better than to be the sole ruler over the people of my race.
Such laconic bravery doubtlessly helped to maintain morale. Herodotus writes that when Dienekes , a Spartan soldier, was informed that Persian arrows would be so numerous as "to block out the sun", he retorted, "So much the better After the battle, Xerxes was curious as to what the Greeks had been trying to do presumably because they had had so few men and had some Arcadian deserters interrogated in his presence.
The answer was: all the other men were participating in the Olympic Games. When Xerxes asked what the prize was for the winner, the answer was: "an olive-wreath".
Upon hearing this, Tigranes , a Persian general, said: "Good heavens, Mardonius , what kind of men are these that you have pitted against us?
It is not for riches that they contend but for honour! Men that fight not for gold, but for glory.
The Battle of Thermopylae has remained a cultural icon of western civilization ever since it was fought. The battle is revisited in countless adages and works of popular culture, such as in films e.
The battle is also discussed in many articles and books on the theory and practice of warfare. Prior to the battle, the Hellenes remembered the Dorians , an ethnic distinction which applied to the Spartans , as the conquerors and displacers of the Ionians in the Peloponnesus.
After the battle, Spartan culture became an inspiration and object of emulation, a phenomenon known as Laconophilia. Greece has announced two commemorative coins to mark years since the historic battle.
Similarities between the Battle of Thermopylae and the Battle of Persian Gate have been recognized by both ancient and modern authors,  which describe it as a kind of reversal of the Battle of Thermopylae,  calling it "the Persian Thermopylae".
There are even accounts that a local shepherd informed Alexander's forces about the secret path, just as a local Greek showed the Persian forces a secret path around the pass at Thermopylae.
No real consensus exists; even the most recent estimates by academics vary between , and , As Holland puts it, "in short From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other battles at Thermopylae, see Battle of Thermopylae disambiguation. For the film, see The Spartans. Persians defeated Greek states in BC.
Second Persian invasion of Greece. Main article: Herodotus. Main article: Battle of Thermopylae in popular culture.
Main article: Sparta in popular culture. Ancient Greece portal Greece portal War portal. Retrieved 26 November Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 30 August The Organization of Xerxes' Army.
Iranica Antiqua Vol. Understanding Emerson: "The American scholar" and his struggle for self-reliance. Princeton University Press. The Greek and Persian Wars B.
Its the sort of film which made me want to find out about the Spartans and this particular period.
Sad of me? Maybe, but I don't mind, it was great fun. Enjoy, I certainly did. Sign In. Keep track of everything you watch; tell your friends.
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